人人爽人人爱_日本三级强乳伦姧_久久99国产精品片久久99蜜桃_男女无遮挡羞羞视频免费网站

數(shu)字證(zheng)書(shu)就是(shi)互聯(lian)網(wang)(wang)通(tong)訊中標志通(tong)訊各方身(shen)份信(xin)息的一(yi)串數(shu)字,提(ti)供了(le)一(yi)種在(zai)Internet上驗證(zheng)通(tong)信(xin)實體(ti)身(shen)份的方式(shi),數(shu)字證(zheng)書(shu)不是(shi)數(shu)字身(shen)份證(zheng),而是(shi)身(shen)份認證(zheng)機(ji)構(gou)蓋在(zai)數(shu)字身(shen)份證(zheng)上的一(yi)個(ge)章或印(或者說加在(zai)數(shu)字身(shen)份證(zheng)上的一(yi)個(ge)簽名)。它是(shi)由權威機(ji)構(gou)——CA機(ji)構(gou),又稱為證(zheng)書(shu)授權(Certificate Authority)中心發行的,人們可(ke)以在(zai)網(wang)(wang)上用(yong)它來識(shi)別對方的身(shen)份。

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

頒發過程

數字(zi)證(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)頒發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)過程(cheng)一般為:用(yong)(yong)戶(hu)首先產生(sheng)自己的(de)(de)(de)密(mi)鑰(yao)對(dui),并(bing)將公共(gong)密(mi)鑰(yao)及部(bu)分個(ge)人(ren)身份信(xin)息(xi)(xi)傳送給認(ren)證(zheng)(zheng)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)。認(ren)證(zheng)(zheng)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)在核實身份后,將執行(xing)一些必(bi)要的(de)(de)(de)步(bu)驟(zou),以確信(xin)請求確實由(you)用(yong)(yong)戶(hu)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)送而來(lai),然后,認(ren)證(zheng)(zheng)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)將發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)給用(yong)(yong)戶(hu)一個(ge)數字(zi)證(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu),該(gai)證(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)內(nei)包含用(yong)(yong)戶(hu)的(de)(de)(de)個(ge)人(ren)信(xin)息(xi)(xi)和他的(de)(de)(de)公鑰(yao)信(xin)息(xi)(xi),同時還(huan)附有認(ren)證(zheng)(zheng)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)簽名信(xin)息(xi)(xi)。用(yong)(yong)戶(hu)就可(ke)(ke)(ke)以使用(yong)(yong)自己的(de)(de)(de)數字(zi)證(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)進行(xing)相(xiang)關的(de)(de)(de)各種活動。數字(zi)證(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)由(you)獨立的(de)(de)(de)證(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)行(xing)機構發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)布(bu)。數字(zi)證(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)各不相(xiang)同,每種證(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)可(ke)(ke)(ke)提(ti)供不同級別的(de)(de)(de)可(ke)(ke)(ke)信(xin)度。可(ke)(ke)(ke)以從證(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)發(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)行(xing)機構獲(huo)得您自己的(de)(de)(de)數字(zi)證(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)。

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

授權機構

數字證書(shu)工作(zuo)基本(ben)原理圖

CA機(ji)構(gou),又稱為(wei)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)授證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(Certificate Authority)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin),作(zuo)為(wei)電子(zi)(zi)商務(wu)交(jiao)易(yi)中(zhong)受信任(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)第三方,承擔公(gong)(gong)鑰體(ti)系中(zhong)公(gong)(gong)鑰的(de)(de)(de)(de)合法性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)檢驗的(de)(de)(de)(de)責任(ren)。CA中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)為(wei)每個(ge)(ge)(ge)使(shi)用(yong)公(gong)(gong)開密鑰的(de)(de)(de)(de)用(yong)戶發放(fang)一個(ge)(ge)(ge)數(shu)(shu)字證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu),數(shu)(shu)字證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)用(yong)是(shi)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)明(ming)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)中(zhong)列(lie)出(chu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)用(yong)戶合法擁有證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)中(zhong)列(lie)出(chu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)公(gong)(gong)開密鑰。CA機(ji)構(gou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)數(shu)(shu)字簽名使(shi)得攻擊者不能偽造(zao)和(he)篡改證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)。它負(fu)責產生、分配并(bing)管理所有參與網上(shang)交(jiao)易(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)個(ge)(ge)(ge)體(ti)所需(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)數(shu)(shu)字證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu),因此是(shi)安全(quan)電子(zi)(zi)交(jiao)易(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)核(he)心(xin)(xin)(xin)環(huan)節(jie)。由此可(ke)見(jian),建(jian)設證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)授權(quan)(CA)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin),是(shi)開拓和(he)規范(fan)電子(zi)(zi)商務(wu)市場(chang)必不可(ke)少的(de)(de)(de)(de)一步。為(wei)保證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)用(yong)戶之間在網上(shang)傳遞信息(xi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)安全(quan)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、真實性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、可(ke)靠性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、完整(zheng)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)和(he)不可(ke)抵賴性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),不僅(jin)需(xu)(xu)要(yao)對用(yong)戶的(de)(de)(de)(de)身份真實性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)進行驗證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng),也需(xu)(xu)要(yao)有一個(ge)(ge)(ge)具有權(quan)威性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、公(gong)(gong)正性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、唯一性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)機(ji)構(gou),負(fu)責向(xiang)電子(zi)(zi)商務(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)各個(ge)(ge)(ge)主體(ti)頒(ban)發并(bing)管理符合國內、國際安全(quan)電子(zi)(zi)交(jiao)易(yi)協議標(biao)準的(de)(de)(de)(de)電子(zi)(zi)商務(wu)安全(quan)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)。

 

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

證書申請

一般來講(jiang),用戶要攜帶有關(guan)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)件到(dao)各地的(de)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)受理點(dian),或者直(zhi)接到(dao)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)發放機構即CA中心填(tian)寫申請表并進行身(shen)份審(shen)核,審(shen)核通(tong)過后交(jiao)納一定費(fei)用就可(ke)以得(de)到(dao)裝有證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)的(de)相(xiang)關(guan)介質(磁盤或Key)和一個(ge)寫有密碼口令(ling)的(de)密碼信封(feng)。

域(yu)名(ming)型的(de)證書申(shen)請的(de)時候,無須遞交(jiao)書面審查資(zi)料(liao),僅需進行(xing)(xing)域(yu)名(ming)有(you)效性驗(yan)(yan)證,網上申(shen)請。而企(qi)業型證書需要進行(xing)(xing)嚴格的(de)網站所(suo)有(you)權的(de)真(zhen)實身(shen)(shen)份(fen)驗(yan)(yan)證,證書標示企(qi)業組織機(ji)構(gou)詳情(qing)(qing),強(qiang)化信任(ren)度。增強(qiang)型證書除了(le)進行(xing)(xing)嚴格的(de)網站所(suo)有(you)權的(de)真(zhen)實身(shen)(shen)份(fen)驗(yan)(yan)證之外(wai),還加入第三方(fang)驗(yan)(yan)證,證書標示增強(qiang)組織機(ji)構(gou)詳情(qing)(qing),強(qiang)化信任(ren)度。

 

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

使用方法

用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)戶(hu)(hu)在進(jin)行需要使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)(shu)的網上操作時,必須準(zhun)備好裝(zhuang)(zhuang)有(you)(you)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)(shu)的存儲介(jie)質(zhi)。如(ru)果(guo)(guo)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)戶(hu)(hu)是在自(zi)己的計算機(ji)上進(jin)行操作,操作前必須先(xian)安(an)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)CA根證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)(shu)。一(yi)般所訪問的系統(tong)(tong)如(ru)果(guo)(guo)需要使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)數字(zi)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)(shu)會(hui)自(zi)動(dong)彈出(chu)提示(shi)框要求(qiu)安(an)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)根證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)(shu),用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)戶(hu)(hu)直(zhi)接選(xuan)擇確(que)認即可;當然也可以直(zhi)接登陸CA中心的網站,下(xia)載安(an)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)根證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)(shu)。操作時,一(yi)般系統(tong)(tong)會(hui)自(zi)動(dong)提示(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)戶(hu)(hu)出(chu)示(shi)數字(zi)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)(shu)或(huo)者插入(ru)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)(shu)介(jie)質(zhi)(IC卡或(huo)Key),用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)戶(hu)(hu)插入(ru)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)(shu)介(jie)質(zhi)后(hou)系統(tong)(tong)將要求(qiu)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)戶(hu)(hu)輸(shu)入(ru)密(mi)碼口令,此時用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)戶(hu)(hu)需要輸(shu)入(ru)申請證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)(shu)時獲得的密(mi)碼信封中的密(mi)碼,密(mi)碼驗證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)正確(que)后(hou)系統(tong)(tong)將自(zi)動(dong)調用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)數字(zi)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)(shu)進(jin)行相關操作。使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)后(hou),用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)戶(hu)(hu)應記(ji)住取出(chu)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)(shu)介(jie)質(zhi),并妥(tuo)善(shan)保管。當然,根據不同系統(tong)(tong)數字(zi)證(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)書(shu)(shu)(shu)會(hui)有(you)(you)不同的使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)方式(shi),但系統(tong)(tong)一(yi)般會(hui)有(you)(you)明確(que)提示(shi),用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)戶(hu)(hu)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)起來(lai)都較為方便。